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Disordered eating

Disordered relationships with food take many forms: whether eating too much or too little, food becomes a powerful preoccupation. Although much of the attention around disordered eating focuses on body standards, for many people disordered eating offers a means of control—albeit a very dangerous one.
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What are the types of eating disorders?

How do I know if I have ADHD? Does my child have ADHD?

Many people with ADHD aren't aware they have it. They will be aware however that everyday tasks seem more difficult for them than for others. Typical symptoms are finding it hard to focus, missing deadlines and trouble controlling impulses, ranging from impatience to mood swings and outbursts of anger. Other symptoms include:

  • Trouble multitasking.
  • Excessive activity or restlessness.
  • Poor planning.
  • Hot temper.
  • Trouble coping with stress.

What ADHD is not

The above list may be familiar to most people at different times in their lives. If these symptoms occur only occasionally, they probably don't have ADHD. A doctor usually diagnoses when someone’s symptoms cause problems that stop a person working, finding stable housing, or living normally and safely.

Diagnosis of ADHD in adults is often trickier because the same symptoms also occur in mental health conditions, such as anxiety or mood disorders. Many adults with ADHD also have at least one other mental health condition (depression and anxiety are the most common).

At what age do ADHD symptoms appear?

Symptoms usually start before the age of 12 and continue into adulthood.

How long does ADHD last?

ADHD is a lifelong condition, though it often becomes less marked in adulthood. But it can be effectively managed. The first step is to see a doctor and start seeking a diagnosis.

How many people have ADHD?

In the UK, the incidence of ADHD in school-aged children is thought to be between 3 and 5%. In adults it is between 3 and 4%.

What causes ADHD?

We still don’t know for sure. An enormous amount of research is focused on finding the causes of ADHD. Factors that may be involved include:

  • Genetics.
  • Environment.
  • Problems during development.

What are the risk factors for ADHD?

The risk of a person developing ADHD may increase if:

  • Family members suffer from ADHD.
  • During pregnancy the mother smokes, drinks, or uses drugs.
  • A child is premature.

What are the impacts of delayed diagnosis of ADHD?

ADHD has been linked to:

  • Poor school or work performance.
  • Unemployment.
  • Financial problems.
  • Trouble with the police.
  • Alcohol or drug misuse.
  • Unstable relationships.
  • Poor self-esteem.

How is ADHD diagnosed?

Making the diagnosis normally includes:

  • Asking questions about symptoms and family medical history.
  • ADHD tests to measure symptoms.

What are the treatments for ADHD?

ADHD is normally treated through a two-pronged approach:

  • Medication.
  • Therapy.

ADHD medication

Doctors might prescribe stimulants for ADHD – which might seem counterintuitive, but has a strong evidence basis for regulating brain activity.

Some ADHD patients might also benefit from antidepressants or other medication, but in every case a doctor is best placed to advise on what to take.

Therapy for ADHD

Psychotherapy is indicated for people with ADHD but behavioural therapies can also help manage traits that make people with ADHD disorganised, and teach useful skills as well.

Help and information about ADHD

ADHD (NHS Choices)

NHS Choices provides information about the signs, symptoms and treatment for depression.

ADHD Foundation

For people with an ADHD diagnoses, this charity provides resources and advocacy.

Young Minds

Aimed at young people, this profile of ADHD explains what it is, how to seek treatment and mental health concerns for people with ADHD in a clear and straightforward way.

Click here to see practitioners who specialise in

Disordered eating


Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a strict sense of control over what a person eats, and often comes with a strong desire to exercise or ‘burn off’ the energy from a person’s diet. Many people with anorexia relate their restrictions to weight loss or body image.

Binge-eating disorder

People with chronic bingeing eat beyond the point of discomfort, often to cope with uncomfortable thoughts or feelings.


Bulimia is a form of restricted eating in which a person purges what they eat by being sick or taking laxatives. Purges do not have to follow any particular rhythm or pattern. Like anorexia, people with bulimia often relate their restrictive behaviour to how much they weigh or how they appear.


When a person applies very strict rules to what they eat, often to follow a supposedly ‘pure’, ‘healthy’ or ‘clean’ diet, they might get what is a relatively new ED diagnosis of orthorexia. Like with other eating disorders, people might find that orthorexia forces them to obsess about their restrictions, makes them physically ill, and affects their relationships with loved ones.

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID)

People who have an ARFID diagnosis obsessively restrict what they eat out of fear or anxiety – not about weight or body image but to avoid choking, being sick or getting stomach pain. They might also restrict their diet because they don’t recognise hunger well, or feel extremely sensitive to the taste, texture or smell of food.

Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED)

When a person uses various types of disordered eating to cope with how they feel, a doctor might use an OSFED diagnosis to help them get treatment that recognises this. OSFED may previously have been diagnosed as Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS).

Do I have an eating disorder?

If you are worried that your relationship with food is not normal, or seems to change depending on your mood or stress levels, it might be worth seeking help from a GP or therapist.

It can be difficult to get specialist treatment for eating disorders on the NHS, so some people choose to look for a private therapist to speed up treatment.

Do I have an eating disorder, or am I just a picky eater?

If thoughts of eating and restriction are taking over your life, you should seek support to find out how to manage anxiety around eating.

People who are accused of being ‘picky’ might not have an eating disorder, but having a difficult relationship with food – particularly one that gets worse when anxiety is higher – is stressful. It might be worth discussing why food is such a thorny topic with a therapist.

Does my child have an eating disorder?

If you notice ED symptoms in your child, or secrecy around eating or restricting, talk to them about it. You might want to seek outside help, such as a specialist therapist or GP.

How long do eating disorders last?

Many people find that once their relationship with food has been damaged by stress or anxiety, even when they feel ‘normal’ again they take special care of what they eat, and tightly manage their behaviours around food. There is no “cure” for eating disorders, but with treatment, care and support people can recover.

How many people have eating disorders?

The charity Beat estimates that about 1.25m people in the UK have an eating disorder.

What causes eating disorders?

Eating disorders can come out of the blue, or after a stressful experience. They can come at any time in life but during adolescence is common. Eating disorders tend to be a symptom of or method for dealing with anxiety, depression or stress.

People with existing mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, bipolar and BDD are at greater risk of developing an ED, as are people with low self-esteem.

Unlike other EDs, ARFID is more common in people with developmental disorders or neurodivergence such as autism or ADHD, because these people might find eating more difficult.

What treatments are there for eating disorders?

Therapy for eating disorders

Talk therapy really helps patients with disordered eating, if they want to get better. Behavioural therapies such as CBT and its variants (e.g. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) can help people question parts of their relationship with food, self-image and anxiety.

Medication for eating disorders

Antidepressants can tackle underlying mental health concerns and support someone who is struggling with disordered eating.

Rehabilitation for eating disorders

For eating disorders crises, for example if someone’s health is at risk from their restrictive eating, there are in-patient facilities that can help people get back to a weight that can support normal functioning.

Helpful websites for people with eating disorders


The UK’s leading charity for people with eating disorders and their families.